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Java Virtual Threads

Java Virtual Threads

Java Virtual Threads, introduced in Java 21 (JDK 18), are lightweight threads managed by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Unlike traditional OS threads, virtual threads are managed entirely within the JVM, providing a more efficient and scalable concurrency model.

What are Java Virtual Threads?

Java Virtual Threads are threads that are managed by the JVM itself, rather than relying on the underlying operating system's threading mechanism. They are lightweight and consume significantly less memory compared to traditional OS threads.

When were Java Virtual Threads introduced?

Java Virtual Threads were introduced in Java 21, which is part of JDK 18. They are a major feature introduced to enhance the concurrency model of the Java platform.

Use Cases for Java Virtual Threads

  • Highly Concurrent Applications: Virtual threads are suitable for applications that require high levels of concurrency, such as web servers and microservices.
  • Asynchronous I/O Operations: They are well-suited for handling asynchronous I/O operations, such as network communication and file I/O.
  • Task Parallelism: Virtual threads can be used to parallelize tasks across multiple CPU cores, improving performance on multi-core systems.
  • Scalability: Applications that need to scale to a large number of concurrent users or connections can benefit from the lightweight nature of virtual threads.

Implementation Code

Here's an example of how to create and use virtual threads in Java:

import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

public class VirtualThreadExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newVirtualThreadExecutor();

        for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
            executor.execute(() -> {
                System.out.println("Executing task on virtual thread: " + Thread.currentThread().getName());


In this example, we create a virtual thread executor using Executors.newVirtualThreadExecutor() and submit tasks to it using the execute() method. Each task is executed on a separate virtual thread.

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